By Lemuel Wingard (Eds.)
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All handling o f the substrate is mechanized as much as possible in a modern factory, and fully automated continuously operating factories are reported to exist. Unfortunately, no detailed descriptions o f such factories are available. Sterilization o f the semisolid medium is difficult, and aseptic han dling o f the sterilized medium is almost impossible; thus, it is difficult to avoid minor contaminations. Fortunately, growth spreads slowly in the trays, and the massive inoculation decreases the ability o f infec tions to overgrow the production organism.
Turer, therefore, has to reckon with a substantial expense for this part o f the manufacturing process, and he has to invest in extensive facilities for control laboratories. A. Standardization In principle, enzyme preparations are always sold on an activity basis. T h e manufacturer will promise or guarantee a certain effect in application, and the customer expects this effect to take place when he uses the product. He will also expect properties to b e the same from batch to batch. T o ensure that the enzyme concentration is maintained at the desired level, the manufacturer must determine the enzyme activity and standardize the product with inert material.
PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES Extracellular proteases are probably the most widespread microbial enzymes. T h e y are easy to detect and isolate, and they often occur in large concentrations. Consequently, they have b e e n popular research objects, and there is an extensive literature on production and proper ties o f proteases from various microorganisms. Proteases with a wide variety o f specificities are known, but very few are produced industrially. T h e most important are the alkaline serine proteases and neutral metalloproteases, which are formed by Bacillus species and the acid proteases from Aspergillus and Mucor.