By Nigel G. Halford
Plant molecular biology got here to the fore within the early Nineteen Eighties and there was large development within the topic in view that then. The examine of plant genes and genomes and the improvement of suggestions for the incorporation of novel or transformed genes into crops ultimately resulted in the commercialisation of genetically converted (GM) plants within the mid-1990s. This used to be noticeable because the begin of a biotechnological revolution in plant breeding. besides the fact that, plant biotechnology has turn into one of many preferred debates of the age and, in Europe at the very least, one of many maximum demanding situations that plant scientists have ever confronted.
This publication covers the heritage and improvement of the technology and strategies that underpin plant biotechnology. It describes the GM vegetation which are or were grown commercially around the globe, together with disasters in addition to successes, and the recent forms which are being constructed. the security checklist of GM plants is reviewed including the laws that has been followed to hide their use. The e-book additionally bargains with the troubles of customers, the GM crop debate and the clients for the expertise. within the moment version, sections on present GM vegetation and destiny advancements in plant biotechnology were significantly improved, whereas these on recommendations, laws and the GM crop debate have additionally been up to date.
The ebook is a concise, accomplished and readable research that's obtainable to a normal readership with a systematic historical past but additionally offers invaluable info for the professional.
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Extra resources for Genetically Modified Crops
In 1966, Bernard Weiss and Charles Richardson working at Johns Hopkins University isolated DNA ligase, an enzyme that ‘glues’ two ends of DNA together. qxd 9/15/2011 3:24 PM b1219 24 Page 24 Genetically Modified Crops Genetically Modified Crops 1859 Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection 1866 1869 1900 1902 1941 1944 Mendel publishes Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybride 1953 1957 1966 1970 1972 1973 Watson and Crick publish structure of DNA 1975 Edwin Southern uses DNA probes to detect specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis: Southern blotting 1977 Gilbert and Sanger independently develop techniques to determine the sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule Miescher discovers DNA Mendel’s work rediscovered Garrod links inherited trait with protein function Beadle and Tatum publish ‘one gene, one enzyme’ hypothesis.
There are some notable absentees from these lists. There is currently no GM wheat being grown commercially on a significant scale, for example, and very little GM rice. China has just approved some GM rice varieties for cultivation but it is likely to be 2012 before they are made available to farmers. 1 GM crop areas in the 25 countries growing GM crops commercially in 2009. Country USA Brazil Argentina India Canada China Paraguay South Africa Bolivia Uruguay Philippines Australia Burkina Faso Mexico Spain Chile Colombia Costa Rica Czech Republic Egypt Honduras Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Total GM crop area (thousand hectares) 64000 21400 21300 8400 8200 3700 2200 2100 800 800 500 200 100 100 100 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 134000 out of wheat research and development altogether.
1), with the USA, Argentina, Brazil, India, Canada, China, Paraguay and South Africa all planting more than a million hectares of GM crops. There are some notable absentees from these lists. There is currently no GM wheat being grown commercially on a significant scale, for example, and very little GM rice. China has just approved some GM rice varieties for cultivation but it is likely to be 2012 before they are made available to farmers. 1 GM crop areas in the 25 countries growing GM crops commercially in 2009.