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All the distributions, whatever the method used for estimating body fat, were markedly positively skewed, with a long tail of high values .... ' In the same study the standard errors for the prediction of body fat from the ratio W/H z were calculated, and were found to be from about 3-6% of body weight. With the densitometric method these standard errors were 2-3°;;, of body weight. The same authors also calculated the linear regression equations for prediction of body fat (as estimated by densitometry) from various weight!
Most of these have not been validated and are specific to the population on which they were formulated . There are, however, equations that have been drawn up with attention to the factors likely to cause specificity [101-103] and that have been 30 Anthropometric methodology cross-validated on other populations [104, 105). These, although not always more accurate, may perform better at the ends of the range and should be chosen in preference to apparently more accurate but unvalidated equations.
2 Principle of the method The limbs consist primarily of bone, muscle, and fat. A number of investigators over the years have recognized the relative ease by which these structures can be quantified in living individuals [46-51]. Methods include radiography , anthropometry , ultrasonography , infrared spectroscopy , and magnetic resonance imaging . The focus here is on the anthropometric methods of measuring muscle and fat areas. The basic concept is that the limb resembles a cylinder; measuring limb circumference then provides a means of calculating total limb cross-sectional area.