By J. A. Loader
Loader teilt Koh 1,12-12,18 in dreißig Perikopen ein, die er in eigener englischer Übersetzung wiedergibt und auf “polare", d.h. in Spannung zueinander stehende Denkstrukturen untersucht, so daß unter diesem Gesichtspunkt ein nahezu vollständiger Kommentar zum Koheletbuch entsteht. (Nur Kap. 7,8-10 bleibt als einziger textual content ohne polaren Inhalt außer Betracht). Die Besprechung der Perikopen folgt nicht der Anordnung des Textes, sondern den zehn grundlegenden Polaritäten, die Loader findet: Bewahrung, Leben - Verlust, Tod; Wert(losigkeit) der Weisheit; Wagnis und Sicherheit; politische Macht(losigkeit) ; Reden und Schweigen; Unwert des Reichtums; Arbeit ohne Erfolg; unmenschlicher Mensch; ausbleibender Lohn; Mühsal und Freude. Bei seiner examine kommt Loader ohne die geläufige Annahme einer orthodoxen Rezension des Koheletbuches aus. Auch wo die Polarität der herkömmlichen Lebensweisheit entstammt — besonders bei Reden / Schweigen —, läßt sie sich dieser nicht zuordnen, weil für Kohelet keine Lebenskunde möglich ist.
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Additional resources for Polar Structures in the Book of Qohelet
The first stichos polarizes wisdom and folly: The young man is expressly called wise and the old king foolish. It is a iö^-saying extolling the advantage of wisdom over folly-a typical chokmatic Gattung and a typical chokmatic topic (cf. the combination of wise and poor in 6s 9is and the so-called Babylonian "Qohelet"). Then two stichoi follow to show that the young man rose to power, which "proves" the fob-saying. Next come two further stichoi on the overwhelming support of the people for the new king.
G. Horton, Koheleth's concept of opposites, Numen 1972, 1 ff. Worth(lessness) of wisdom 41 its position (differently Zimmerli and Gemser; cf. NEB). It is an expression of the fact that the same fate is to be expected regardless of time. This is the first aspect of the relation between wisdom and folly. Wisdom was treated seperately in section (ii) and folly in section (iii). Now they are related to one another (v. 12 a) under two aspects, the first of which is discussed in section (iv). This relation is lucidly pictured in v.
Sir30i4 30i7. These examples from Proverbs (the number of tob-sayings are more than the verses referred to) are all constructed with tob and min. Now Loretz is careful when he says that Qohelet has "höchstwahrscheinlich" taken over existing iöfe-sayings. This may be the case with sayings as 4i3 69 9ie and 9ie, but it is questionable in the case of 4e 49 7ib 72 and 73, and impossible in the case of 63. The argument that 43 was an existing saying on the grounds of Job 3i«. is not valid because the latter passage has nothing to do with the Gattung of the föfe-saying.