By Shalom Paul
The e-book of the traditional legislation of Hammurapi in 1902, rising from excavations performed in Susa and formerly at Niniveh, ushered in a brand new period within the research of historic close to jap legislation. to start with, there has been a necessity to interpret those Babylonian legislation of their cultural surroundings, to translate and relate them to the hundreds of thousands of documents and contracts already unearthed within the historical towns of Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria. the sector of research widened additional with the following discovery, through the 20th century, of different legislation collections, either older and more youthful than the Hammurapi legislation, written in Sumerian, Akkadian, and Hittite. students ultimately got here to achieve that those old legislation collections, which have been written over a interval of centuries, from c. 2100 to 560 B.C.E., weren't “codes” in our sleek feel of foundational laws or legislation. they seem, particularly, more often than not to be corpora of latest norms awarded within the kind of instances, and compiled by means of palace and temple scribes, who comprised a small, literate minority between a lot better bureaucracies operating for such significant associations.
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Additional info for Studies in the Book of the Covenant in the Light of Cuneiform and Biblical Law
Fensham, "Maledictions and Benedictions in Ancient Near Eastern Vassal-Treaties and the Old Testament," ZAW 74 (1962), pp. 1-9, and "Common Trends in Curses of the Near Eastern Treaties and Kudurru-Inscriptions with Maledictions of Amos and Isaiah," ZAW 75 (1963), pp. 155-175; D. J. McCarthy, Treaty and Covenant (Rome, 1963), pp. 69-70. Similady in hynms and royal inscriptions, see F. R. Kraus, "Altmesopotamisches Lebensgefühl," JNES 19 (1960), p. 127, and McCarthy, op. , p. 123, n. 30. Cf. also S.
Fohrer, "Das sogenannte apodiktisch formulierte Recht und der Dekalog," KuD 11 (1965), pp. 52, 67, 73; E. Gerstenberger, "Covenant and Commandment," JBL 84 (1965), p. 51. G. E. Mendenhall, Law and Covenant in Israel and the Aneient Near East (Pittsburgh, 1955 [= BA 17 (1954), pp. 26-46, 50-76]), p. " Cf. Harrelson, op. , p. 161, and "Law in the Old Testament," IDB, Vol. U1, p. 80. According to Eichrodt, op. , p. " 2) However, the Decalogue itself is not the "text of the covenant," contra Mendenhall, op.
An important literary relationship between building inscriptions and letters to the gods has been established by E. A. Speiser in "Ancient Mesopotamia," The Idea of History in the Ancient Near East, ed. R. C. Dentan (New Haven, 1955), p. 65. 4) The most comprehensive study of royal inscriptions was made by S. Mowinckel, "Die vorderasiatischen Königs- und Fürsteninschriften-Eine stilistische Studie," Eucharisterion: Studien zum Religion und Literatur des alten und neuen Testaments. Hermann Gunkel zum 60.