By Dietz Otto Edzard
It sort of feels secure to assert that this "Sumerian Grammar" through Professor D.O. Edzard turns into the hot vintage reference within the box. it's an updated, trustworthy advisor to the language of the Sumerians, the inventors of cuneiform writing within the past due 4th millennium B.C., and hence crucial members to the excessive cultural average of the total of Mesopotamia and past. Following conventional strains, the "Grammar" describes normal features, origins, linguistic surroundings, phonetics and phonology, morphology, syntax, and phrasing. Due realization is given to the symbiosis with Semitic Akkadian, with which Sumerian used to be to shape a veritable linguistic sector. With lucid causes of all technical linguistic thought. each one transliteration consists of its English translation.
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Additional resources for Sumerian Grammar (Handbook of Oriental Studies/Handbuch Der Orientalistik)
5). 1. A plural properly speaking (implying two or more counted objects) and marked by a special suﬃxed particle is restricted to person class: [(e)ne] with the distribution [ene] after consonant, including [H], and [ne] after vowels. The ﬁrst [e] thus behaves like the [e] of the ergative or directive case particle: lugal-e-ne “kings”, galaH-e-ne “can tors”, ugula-ne “overseers”. , di∞gir-ré-ne (OS), di∞gir-re-e-ne (OB), ab-ba-eri-ke4-ne “city elders”. If the substantive is extended by an adjective, an apposition or by another noun in the genitive, [ene] follows the extended complex: di∞gir-gal-gal-e-ne “the great gods”, ama-a-a-An-na-ke4-ne “the mothers and fathers of An”.
Ba-ug7ge “they died” stood for [ba’uge“, ba-u-ge“]. With lugal-me, only context could show whether lugal-me(“) “they are kings” or lugalme(n) “I am/you are king” was meant. Until Ur III, and partly still in OB, the person or non-person class ergative or absolutive markers -n- or -b-, placed immediately before the verbal base, were left unnoted, because they always were found in a close syllable; mu-na§rú “he/she built for him/her” stood for [mu-na-n-§rú]. Therefore, reconstruction of a given verbal form often depends on our—subjective—interpretation.
2. Ergative The ergative marks the subject of a transitive (‘object’-taking) verbal form. Its usage is consistent in classical Sumerian, and it is only under 2nd millennium Akkadian inﬂuence that absolutive and erga tive may be used “incorrectly”. 9) is not graphically shown when the preceding substantive ends in a vowel. It is either disregarded in spelling or replaced by a “plene” vowel sign, corresponding to the last vowel of the preceding noun: ama or ama-a “mother”, lú or lú-ù “person”. , EDZARD_f6_28-45 4/28/03 36 2:40 PM Page 36 ama’a, or whether it was (c) a mere visual mark for guiding the reader without relevance for pronunciation.